Robot Navigation Using Optical Odometry

The ability of autonomous mobile Robots to navigate safely and reliably within their environments is their main important issues.

• What is the current location?

• How are the objects around me placed?

• How do I get to the destination?

–          The autonomous navigation of the robot should be able to answer the above questions.

We are developing the Optical Mouse for Odometry to answer these questions.

• We can determine the distance and direction in which robot has traveled with the help of the X and Y coordinates provided by the optical mouse.

• The displacement measurement is not affected by the wheel slip and slides because optical mouse is attached to the body of the robot.

• We can move the Robot on a perfectly straight path by using a feedback control on the X coordinate. The stepper motors, which are used to maintain uniform speed in both left and right wheels, will be replaced by a feedback control on the X coordinate.

• The coordinates provided by mouse are very precise with a count of 0.25 mm.

• We can avoid the obstacles in the path of the Robot with the help of IR transmitters and receivers.

In the Optical Odometry, we will measure the distance with the help of optical mouse. Optical mouse contains a single LED (Light Emitting Diode) which it bounces the light off the surface. A small camera is also present in this mouse, which takes snaps of the surface. It scans the surface very quickly i.e. 1500 times/second. The photos that have been taken from camera are received and analyzed for differences by the digital signal processor. It finds few differences in the pictures and it determines how far the mouse has moved across your table and at what speed by using these differences. Then, coordinates are sent to the host. The patters are detected and analyzed by the DSP. This is used for navigation.

 

By using the data received by the TSOP we created an obstacle map. Transmission signal has 7 bursts of IR signal, if TSOP receives more than 4 bursts then obstacle is present in the direction of the active transmitter. Thus by activating the transmitters one after the other, we creates an obstacle map. We can find the location of obstacle i.e. whether it is to the left or to the right or in-front of the robot, with the help of the obstacle map.

The commands sent by the TV remote are received by the receiver. By pressing the specific keys on the TV remote, we can select various destinations. The micro controller will decode the signal by using Sony format (SIRCS).

 

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